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Full text of "Practical Organic Chemistry"

no              PRACTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRV

too small or has become dark-coloured and thick. The distil-
late is submitted to a second distillation, which is continued
until no oily layer separates from the latter portions which distil
on treating with solid potassium carbonate. This occurs when
the temperature reaches about 105°. On adding solid potassium
carbonate to the distillate, the allyl alcohol settles out as an oil.
This is separated and distilled. Yield about 15 grams boiling
at 92—96°.

C2H2O4 + C3H8O3= C3H5(OH)2.O.CO.H + H,

Glycerol monoformin.

Allyl alcohol.
Properties. — Colourless liquid, with a pungent odour ; b. p.
9^*5°; sp. gr. 0-858 at 15°.
Reaction. — Add bromine water to a little of the allyl alcohol.
It is immediately decolourised, C3H6OH + Br3==C3H6BraOH.
See Appendix^ p. 259.
PREPARATION 31.
|   •   •                                                  Isopropyl Iodide, CH3.CHI.CH3
;      !_                                                Markownikoff, Annalen, 1866, 138, 364.
!      '   >                 .                                             60 grms. iodine.
'                                                                 40     „     glycerol.
\                                                                                  32     „     water.
!,                                                                        1 1     „     yellow phosphorus.
The iodine, glycerol, and water are placed together- in a retort
(250 c.c.), standing over wire-gauze and attached to a condenser
1 1    ,                           and receiver.    The phosphorus is cut up under a layer of water
i, "      ,                         into small pieces, the size of a pea, and, with crucible tongs,
.    ,f   J                          dropped gradually into the  retort.    The  introduction  of the
j'{ v \                          phosphorus generally produces at the beginning a violent re-
f, W     , ',                 t         action, often accompanied by a  vivid  flash.    If.no reaction
^ ' lt« !IN'                         occurs on adding the first few pieces of phosphorus, the retort
{           •   T' .                          must be warmed gently.    The last two-thirds of the phosphorus
i      !     ',   . '                         may be added more quickly.    The contents of the retort are
4 * ,                          now distilled as long as any oily liquid passes over.    The distil-
i"*l> *                                       *ate ^s P°ured bac^ mto ^e retort and redistilled.    The liquid-
I  * .   ' [' J 'I                            is then shaken up with dilute caustic soda solution in a separating-